For some time, many people feel that the current wage gap. Gap between what in what areas? The main reason the wage gap caused by what?
12 January, the Fourth Forum held in Beijing China’s labor. The forum is organized by organized by the Department of Human Resources and Social Security in order to build a harmonious labor relations as its theme, from labor relations, employment, income distribution, social security in such areas as communication and discussion.
Forum, Human Resources Department of Labor and Social Security Institute published a related report wages.
The report notes that the current wage income gap in China is mainly reflected in four aspects, namely, the gap between industries and enterprises, the gap between urban and rural areas, regional disparities, the gap between executives and ordinary workers, these four aspects of the wage income gap in recent years are constantly expanding, should lead to social attention.
widening gap between the wages of people and Social Affairs Yang Liming, deputy director of the Institute, said the reform and opening up, the key is to break the wage reform Now, in line with the characteristics of China’s socialist market economy, the wage distribution system has been established, but is facing new problems, that is, wage income gap is widening. Gap mainly in four aspects:
industry, the wage gap between enterprises to expand. In 2010, the national average wage employment in urban units of 36,539 yuan; the national urban average wage employment in the private units in 20,759 yuan. The highest average wage of the industry the financial sector, 70,146 yuan; the lowest animal husbandry and fishery, 16,717 yuan. Highest and the lowest ratio of 4.2:1. The 1980s, China’s inter-industry wage gap remained at 1.6-1.8 times. Most countries in the world the gap between industry 1.5-2 times. Larger wage gap between enterprises. Bank of Shanghai of a 2010 survey, wages and salaries and bonuses of 296,600 yuan per capita, employees per 60,800 yuan of other benefits, totaling 357,500 yuan, a year enterprise in urban units of the average wage 10 times.
urban-rural income disparities. In 2010, urban residents per capita disposable income of 19,109 yuan; rural residents per capita disposable income of 5919 yuan, both the ratio of 3.23:1 in 1990, this ratio was 2.2:1. Most countries in the world, the proportion of 1.6 or less.
regional income disparities. In 2010, the highest average wage of 66,115 yuan, Shanghai, Heilongjiang Province, 27,735 yuan minimum, maximum and minimum ratio of 2.38:1 in 1990, China’s regional wage and minimum wage the highest ratio of 1.84:1.
executives and ordinary workers pay income disparities. According to statistics, the average annual salary of senior executives of listed companies in 2010 66.8 million of the national average wage is 18 times more. And some private, simple workers low wages. In 2010, urban private units in the accommodation and catering industry, agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fisheries, public administration, industry, social organization employed three average monthly wages in 1461 yuan the following, less than workers in urban units of half the enterprises in the post.
5 kinds of factors caused the wage gap between
determine the deep-seated factors? Means the gap is not unfair? Ming Yang believes that the current wage income gap has become a social hot spot, can not be taken lightly. In reality there are all kinds of wage income gap, the objective is a combination of factors combined result of multiple mechanisms.
First, the workers provide the labor quantity and quality difference, which is to determine the level of wages and wage gaps in the core factors. The complexity of high-tech labor, production processes and other duties and responsibilities of the job often is higher wages.
Second, the commodity market and the law of value would produce larger or smaller differences in labor-distorting effects. Such as employees in enterprises with good economic returns may be higher salary.
Third, the human resources market will pay a regulatory role in the oversupply of workers to be low labor costs, a shortage of workers in labor costs will be high.
Fourth, the regulatory role of factor markets is not small. In the era of strong capital, weak labor, distribution of capital income share in the wealth of a relatively large proportion of the labor factor in the distribution of wealth in a relatively small share of the proceeds.
Fifth, national income distribution system, policy environment will play a guiding role. On the one hand to oppose egalitarianism, allowing some people get rich first, on the one hand we must guard against rich-poor divide and narrow the income gap and achieve common prosperity.
government regulation of essential
reasonable wage income gap will help motivate workers to improve labor efficiency, unreasonable gap will intensify contradictions. China’s current wage gap is too large, widening gap between first and faster historical comparison, the second is with the market economy countries, industries, regions of the gap is too large. China’s current human resources market and factor market is not mature, resulting in a widening of our wage system causes. Therefore, Li-Ming Yang believes that at this stage the role of government is indispensable.
Government, as the designers of the system, to reinforce the institutional basis for the distribution of income. Including the establishment of salary growth mechanism, wages in state-owned enterprise reform and improve the management system, building a state-owned enterprises in the non-wage negotiations, workers’ democratic participation.
amendments to the Government, as the market regulator who should be targeted to implement counter-cyclical adjustment of the market, reverse regulation. For example, the reform and opening up, China’s shortage of capital, employment pressure, the capital of the policy so inclined. At present, the need for human resources market in the vulnerable groups, such as simple laborers to increase protection. Because of the oversupply of ordinary workers are always at a disadvantage, let the market adjust wage levels to be low, the need for policy to take appropriate protection.
In addition, some of the cyclical characteristics of the obvious industries, the government needs to use leverage and income tax policy in counter-cyclical adjustment.
The forum agreed that the building of a harmonious labor relationship is to protect and improve people’s livelihood and safeguard social stability and important infrastructure projects in the future be people-oriented, solid build with Chinese characteristics and harmonious labor relations, improve the quality of employment, reasonable adjustments distribution of incomes, strengthen social security.